Battle of Thermopylae is a tourist attraction in Greece. Go tell the Spartans, thou who passest by, Stranger, tell the Spartans that we behaved, Stranger! [54] In fact, as noted below, the pass was 100 metres wide, probably wider than the Greeks could have held against the Persian masses. Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae. [114] In this struggle, Herodotus states that two of Xerxes' brothers fell: Abrocomes and Hyperanthes. Within the context of local street searches, angles and compass directions are very important, as well as ensuring that distances in … However, he does not say who those men were. The battle took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium. The stranger is also asked to stress that the Spartans died 'fulfilling their orders'. [171][173] Curtius describes the subsequent battle fought by the surrounded, unarmed Persians as "memorable". [111][112] If all the troops had retreated, the open ground beyond the pass would have allowed the Persian cavalry to run the Greeks down. The battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC has become the archetype for the courageous last stand. [95] They fought with spears, until every spear was shattered, and then switched to xiphē (short swords). As the mod tools come out, the map will be polished further. Furthermore, the numbers changed later on in the battle when most of the army retreated and only approximately 3,000 men remained (300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans, possibly up to 900 helots, and 1,000 Phocians stationed above the pass, less the casualties sustained in the previous days). [172] Here, on Alexander the Great's campaign against Persia in 330 BC to exact revenge for the Persian invasion of Greece, he faced the same situation, encountering a last stand of the Persian forces (under Ariobarzanes) at a narrow pass near Persepolis who held the invaders for a month, until their fall as the enemy found a path to their rear. From Mapcarta, the free map. MAPS: G [23][24], The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had aided the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499–494 BC. Most of the Thebans reportedly surrendered. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days (including three of battle) before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. AMERICA MAPS: A - D These accounts are obviously not verifiable, but they form an integral part of the legend of the battle and often demonstrate the laconic speech (and wit) of the Spartans to good effect. Herodotus suggests they were brought to the battle as hostages to ensure the good behavior of Thebes. Downloads [41] Support thus began to coalesce around these two leading states. The form of this ancient Greek poetry is an elegiac couplet, commonly used for epitaphs. [49] It was also the time of the Olympic Games, and therefore the Olympic truce, and thus it would have been doubly sacrilegious for the whole Spartan army to march to war. The Battle at Thermopylae was a battle at the pass of Thermopylae between the Greeks and the Persian Empire in 480 B.C.E. Sitemap 16   [129] He left a hand-picked force, under Mardonius, to complete the conquest the following year. Revolutions F - G Wars & HISTORY MAPS   -   Having been turned back at Marathon in 490 BC, Persian forces returned to Greece ten years later to avenge their defeat and conquer the peninsula. The Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Second Persian Invasion 492-490 BC, Map of the Third The monument is made of marble and features a bronze statue depicting the god Eros, to whom the ancient Thespians accorded particular religious veneration. "[96] This probably describes the standard Greek phalanx, in which the men formed a wall of overlapping shields and layered spear points protruding out from the sides of the shields, which would have been highly effective as long as it spanned the width of the pass. The Battle of Thermopylae was just one of many battles fought between the Greeks and the Persians in a conflict known as The Greco Persian Wars. A plate below the statue explains its symbolism: The monument to the Thespians is placed beside the one to the Spartans. When at a later date, an army of Gauls led by Brennus attempted to force the pass, the shallowness of the water gave the Greek fleet great difficulty getting close enough to the fighting to bombard the Gauls with ship-borne missile weapons. Many of the Greek contingents then either chose to withdraw (without orders) or were ordered to leave by Leonidas (Herodotus admits that there is some doubt about which actually happened). Map of the harbors of Athens 480 BC. Wars & People in History D - F Revolutions B - E Greek epitaphs often appealed to the passing reader (always called 'stranger') for sympathy, but the epitaph for the dead Spartans at Thermopylae took this convention much further than usual, asking the reader to make a personal journey to Sparta to break the news that the Spartan expeditionary force had been wiped out. This was remarkable for the disjointed and chaotic Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other. 5Days Grand Private Tour from Athens (From $2,068.78) Delphi & Meteora Two Days Tour from Athens (From $223.36) History Battle of Thermopylae is situated nearby to Loutrá Thermopilón. [96][98] Herodotus says that the units for each city were kept together; units were rotated in and out of the battle to prevent fatigue, which implies the Greeks had more men than necessary to block the pass. However, a glance at any photograph of the pass shows there are no cliffs, only steep slopes covered in thorny bushes and trees. Themistocles was in command of the Greek Navy at Artemisium when he received news that the Persians had taken the pass at Thermopylae. [115] The king later had the Theban prisoners branded with the royal mark. 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