You can be the most brilliant strategist in the world but, if you don't have that better-rounded aspect to your approach, then you are not going to succeed. A manager I once had taught me a principle I never forgot. The longtime Lincoln City resident was able to fly his drone over the neighborhoods in nearby Otis. Lincoln understood that the timing of Fremont's action would work against winning the war, and in turn, would work against the eventual emancipation of all the slaves. Major General Joseph Hooker Library of Congress : Letter to Major General Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker, called "Fighting Joe," was the third in a succession of commanding Union generals President Lincoln appointed in his search for victories during the Civil War. This was another fantastic historical hub from you. With no battle in sight, he had no choice but to turn over the command to General Hunter. In them he saw his opportunity to remain in command. Lincoln's greatest flaw, if you can call it a flaw, was being overprotective of the capital when he didn't need to be. But it was more up to McClellan to accommodate himself to the president. Interior of Fort Sumter during the bombardment . Obama has almost patterned his career on Lincoln's, and I see no reason why he wouldn't try to pattern his relationship with his generals based on an understanding of what Lincoln was up against. And it was the undoing of both those men. Delivery of Lincoln’s letter to Curtis, with the accompanying orders relieving General Fremont, was entrusted to Leonard Swett, an Illinois attorney who was a long-time personal friend of the president’s. Lincoln was highly intelligent and had an innate strategic vision that outclassed all of his generals (the prime objective was to destroy Lee's army, not capture Richmond). "Shrewd" is a good characterization for Lincoln. After a long funeral procession, he was buried near his home in Springfield, IL. He would probably begin to see whether there were any characteristics that McClellan exhibited that some of his generals now are exhibiting. Lincoln turned out to be one of the most astute politicians in American history. At one session on January 10, 1862, the President told Generals McDowell and William Franklin that he was “in great distress, and as he had been to General [George B. McClellan’s] house and the General did not ask to see him, and as he must talk to somebody, he [desired] to obtain our opinion as to the possibility of soon commencing active operations wit the Army of the Potomac. In the decades before the war he had gained nationwide fame by leading exploratory expeditions to the American far west. Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. To my mind, our greatest president. The president’s instruction was that if Fremont was on the brink of a battle with the enemy, he was not to be relieved. In 1994 Oxford University Press published Lincoln's Generals. You're right about Fremont. What was McClellan's greatest flaw? Congrats on a well-deserved Hub of the Day! His focus is not so much on the battles as on the people. The obvious ones that come to mind are Lincoln (he fired McClellan and some others for ineffectiveness, I believe), Truman (he fired Douglas MacArthur) and Obama. Their success or failure would be measured not by some abstract appraisal of their noble intentions, but by how well Fremont's "manager," who of course was Abraham Lincoln, believed the general was helping him do his job. Gen. Douglas MacArthur had the same relationship with President Truman as McClellan had with Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln’s views on slavery evolved, but his public position until he issued the Emancipation Proclamation was that slavery should not be disturbed in the existing slave states. But now they face a backlash after rioters threatened America's democracy itself. But, at the same time, you need to be open to change if necessary. Thanks, Barack. By late October 1861, less than four months after appointing him, the president was ready to relieve Fremont of his command. Under his leadership, the Department of the West was an administrative shambles and a hotbed of corruption, though Fremont himself was never personally implicated. I live near a gold rush town where he (an Army surveyor) laid out the street plan. Why did Hunter do the same thing as Fremont, and yet, he went on with being Fired ? For a town to be able to say he laid out their street plan should be a point of civic pride. I think President Obama is going to have challenges; he's got a couple of bright generals working for him. Unfortunately the US Army had no experience in creating armies the size of the Civil War armies. Dates: October 15, 1818-May 10, 1885; State: Ohio; Highest Rank Attained: Major General 4. Generals almost fire themselves because they know its against the rules to talk against the president when they are commissioned. He had orders prepared relieving Fremont and appointing General David Hunter to succeed him in command, but didn’t send those orders through normal military channels. He failed to act on his opportunity to destroy the confederate army. An ardent abolitionist, Fremont issued a proclamation in August of 1861 freeing the slaves of all owners in Missouri who refused to swear allegiance to the Union. Lincoln's notification had been made to the governor of South Carolina, not the new Confederate government, which Lincoln did not recognize. This was not, however, the end of John Fremont’s military career. I started reading a Steve Berry novel The Lincoln Myth and it starts with Jessie pleading her husbands case. Lincoln as Commander in Chief A self-taught strategist with no combat experience, Abraham Lincoln saw the path to victory more clearly than his generals As it turned out, there was no time. Fremont’s published accounts and maps were a crucial resource for settlers during their westward migration. The thing about history is that it's a great big, wonderful story. Lincoln’s model and his drawings are now on display in the Smithsonian. Ulysses S. Grant. The Echo Mountain Complex fire took dozens and … “(This fire) is in the same vicinity. In it Lincoln lets General Curtis know, without explicitly saying so, that Fremont could be expected to try to shield himself from ever getting the order to relinquish his command. did or did not do was irrelevant to the ultimate outcome, why make an issue out of the Army generals’ demands for a few days’ halt just 50 miles from Baghdad? The press and the politicos hammered President Lincoln in regard to the initial rumors of General Grant’s failures at the Battle of Shiloh. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals." Our Locations. Fremont, however, had no intention of taking his fate lying down. Since it was first published in 1952, Lincoln and His Generals has remained one of the definitive accounts of Lincoln’s wartime leadership. In many ways Fremont was an admirable person, as was his wife. Thanks, Kristen. McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, Meade, and then Grant? (Let’s not forget that on September 22, 1862, President Lincoln warned the Confederate states that if they did not rejoin the Union before January 1, 1863, he would free their slaves. It is also more likely that Lincoln sacked McClellan for political rather than military reasons. Is it typical for a general not to be a political animal? I never knew of this episode and I am a bit of a history buff. Great hub! Any help in this regard will be Greatly appreciated. He stuck to it regardless. Irate at receiving the dreaded order, Fremont angrily slammed his fist on the table and demanded of McKinney, “Sir, how did you get through my lines?” McKinney, his mission successfully completed, cheerfully explained his ruse. What surprised you the most while writing this book? Wikimedia Commons. Fremont had accumulated at his headquarters aides and bodyguards numbering literally in the hundreds. The point is that he perceived her that way, which doomed any chance she had of accomplishing her mission of saving her husband's job. Edited by Gabor Boritt, it presented assessments of Lincoln's relationship with five army commanders. Half a dozen generals have become president. Health departments in some communities are asking some residents with COVID-19 to reach out to contacts on their own. Lincoln was patient, and did give generals like Fremont real opportunities to show what they could do. Perhaps worst of all, Fremont seemed stubbornly blind to the political realities with which President Lincoln had to contend. The American Civil War was a factory for producing bad generals such as Braxton Bragg and Ambrose Burnside. Thanks, HSchneider. On this day in 1864, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Grant, a major general in the U.S. Army, to the rank of lieutenant general. McClellan ran for president only conditionally. Excerpts: How do you think modern commanders in chief and their generals compare with Lincoln and McClellan? Plus, he implemented public policies in his department that gained him powerful enemies both in Missouri and in Washington. In fact, he was forthright that his purpose in all he did during that war was to preserve the Union. That was a bit gray. But after he failed to trap and defeat a force under Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, the president reassigned Fremont and his army, moving them from being an independent command to being one of several corps in the Army of Virginia under General John Pope. Jessie Benton Fremont was the daughter of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton, and could be expected to swing some weight in Washington. When Lincoln ran for president, he ran wholeheartedly. McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, Meade, and then Grant? First Shots. Edward Bates (September 4, 1793 – March 25, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician. Several essays echoed themes first sounded by T. Harry Williams more than four decades earlier in his 1952 study, Lincoln and His Generals. Even now I think he's more remembered for his accomplishments as the great Pathfinder than for his relative lack of success as a military commander. It became obvious that he could never gain enough support to supersede Lincoln, and he eventually withdrew his candidacy. I must confess to being surprised at receiving another HOTD so soon, but I certainly appreciate it. Thanks, NateB11. I think Lincoln was wrong about that. The Echo Mountain Complex fire started near the town of Otis, along Highway 18. Regrettably, it was a failure. Luckily the ending of slavery was a major result of the horrible war. So Lincoln took extraordinary precautions to insure that the order relieving Fremont would get through to him. Sensing that the president’s mind was already made up and would not change, she informed her husband that, in effect, his fate was sealed. Lincoln was frustrated how McClellan didn't strike Lee after Antietam and how Lee blocked his advance into Richmond. I'm not usually that interested in American history but am glad I stumbled across this hub as it was a really interesting read about a less well known historical figure. Get the latest local news from Lincolnshire. Ronald E Franklin (author) from Mechanicsburg, PA on August 16, 2015: Many thanks, Heidi. Unfortunately the US Army had no experience in creating armies the size of the Civil War armies. This gallery provides an overview of several of the key Union generals who contributed to the Union's cause and helped guide its armies to victory. — A fast moving wildfire near the Oregon coast forced the evacuation of some residents in Lincoln County. General, First Aid and Fire Risk Assessment Services in Lincoln . Are there lessons here for modern leaders about civilian rule over the military? There were no Confederate soldiers anywhere near Fremont’s headquarters. On March 4, 1864, Lincoln signed this certificate making Ulysses S. Grant a lieutenant general, a rank previously held only by George Washington. Lincoln's patent sketches. Thanks. Mindful that the Pathfinder was still very popular with the abolitionist wing of the Republican party, President Lincoln appointed him in March 1862 as commander of the newly created Mountain Department in Western Virginia. John Charles Fremont (1813-1890) was one of the most romantic and colorful characters of the Civil War era. In the spring of 1862, there were many calls for the replacement of Grant. In Lincoln and McClellan: The Troubled Partnership Between a President and His General, Waugh paints a mythlike, historical narrative. Swett and General Curtis decided to send two different messengers, in the hope that at least one of them would get through. But McClellan was no match for Lincoln. Many thought of Lincoln as a martyr. Often accompanied by celebrated frontiersman Kit Carson, Fremont led five expeditions between 1842 and 1853, surveying and mapping routes through what is now the Midwest and on to Oregon and California. From what i've read that's about it, but I was watching this documentary on Gettysburg and it said that Lincoln fired 5 generals before appointing Meade, making Meade the 6th. On the other hand, an order that was not received need not be obeyed. He was a patient president because Fremont failed him but he dint hesitate to give him a second chance; that show Fremont was a grate character in the US military. Ronald E Franklin (author) from Mechanicsburg, PA on April 01, 2017: Lincoln never claimed to be fighting the Civil War to free slaves. Lincoln removes General McClellan from Army of the Potomac. Tags: Abraham Lincoln, Civil War, Douglas MacArthur, Harry S. Truman, Barack Obama. Lincoln was elated after reviewing the final reports on the battle at Shiloh and Grant’s victory in Tennessee. Illegal for them to do that while in the military. It is unfair to lay all the responsibility at Lincoln's door. That fame, along with his credentials as a committed anti-slavery advocate, put him in position to become the first Republican candidate for President in 1856. William E. Parrish, Frank Blair, Lincoln’s Conservative, p. 121. He died in 1890, honored as a retired Major General of the United States Army, and as one of the great Americans of the 19th century. By Timothy P. Townsend, Historian, Lincoln Home National Historic Site "Hold on with a bulldog grip, and chew and choke as much as possible." Hundreds of fanciful, romantic, and second-hand accounts gained traction in the public mind, causing even Lincoln's first historians to throw up their hands in frustration at the lack of similarity in the accounts of his Richmond visit. Fremont refused, thus requiring Lincoln to publicly overrule him. Ron is a student of the American Civil War and writes about it frequently. So, Curtis would need to take the extraordinary step of employing some “safe, certain, and suitable measures” to insure that the orders got through. During his time though he was one of the most famous Americans that live and is one of the most romantic figures in our history that nobody knows about even though so many things that are named after him. After the Whig party collapsed, Lincoln joined the new Republicans and McClellan the Democrats. With little apparent regard for the national political implications of such an action, he issued his proclamation totally on his own, without even notifying the president of his intention. He served in Iraq during his service as the Commanding Officer of the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, and was the Deputy Commanding General of the United States Army Recruiting Command, Fort Knox, KY. 1-3 I am not sure but I do know 4. In the spring of 1863, Senator Benjamin Wade came to see the President and insisted that the American people demanded that he dismiss Grant because the campaign to take Vicksburg had bogged down. From Abraham Lincoln to George G. Meade [Draft], July 14, 1863. Throughout his life Lincoln expressed a strong philosophical love for the patent system. Captain Boyden had managed to get through to General Hunter with the order for him to take over Fremont’s command. Major General Ralph Baker (2 Star)-U.S. Army Commander of the Combined Joint Task Force Horn in Africa (April 2013) It depends on whether they have the political savvy. Whenever there's been a conflict between a general and the president, it's been that the general has gotten the wrong idea of his place. Once the war was over, Fremont was able to regain a measure of his old prominence. If I’m not mistaken he was only elected as the Senator to California he was in the very first and arguably one of the territorial governor is of California during his conquest of the state. Executive Mansion, Washington, July 14, 1863. But President Lincoln knew his man. Lincoln was going to relieve him of his command. President Lincoln, however, was entirely unmoved by her imperious manner. On their way back from Sumter, the aides Chesnut, Chisholm, and Lee stopped at Fort Johnson to inform Captain George S. James that he might fire a signal gun at the specified time. Abraham Lincoln's Invention of Presidential War Powers: Facing the unprecedented crisis of civil war in 1861, President Abraham Lincoln invoked his "war power" as commander-in-chief to "take any measure which may best subdue the enemy." Why did Lincoln fire General McClellan? Soon President Davis ordered Beauregard to repeat the demand for Sumter's surrender, and if it did … That's what both Fremonts seemed not to understand. General Ambrose Burnside; He led a disastrous attack in the hills south of Fredricksburg and was complained about by other officers. I have a lot of sympathy for Fremont. But the general who acquired the nickname of Tardy George never learned that lesson. One of the more extraordinary episodes in the American Civil War took place when President Abraham Lincoln decided to relieve Major General John C. Fremont of his command. He had a different strategy for winning that war. Waugh recently spoke with U.S. News about the two men and what lessons their relationship holds for contemporary political and military leaders. Sensing the severity of Lincoln’s displeasure with him, he sent his wife to Washington to plead his case with the president. Nathan Bernardo from California, United States of America on October 07, 2013: Very fascinating. But his attempt was shortsighted, and would actually have done harm to the cause if Lincoln hadn't intervened. So I looked for a book at my local library about Frémont and found only kids books. He is widely considered to be one of our greatest presidents, if not our greatest. But however great Fremont may have been as an explorer, it soon became clear that he was in over his head as a general. It was the declaration of the Salem Advocate, a newspaper printed in Lincoln's home ground of central Illinois. He preserved the Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves. Abraham Lincoln fired General George McClellan, who wrote to his wife: “There never was a truer epithet applied to a certain individual than that of the ‘Gorilla.’ ” For his part, Lincoln said, “If General McClellan does not want to use the Army, I would like to borrow it.” In the 1864 election, McClellan ran against his old boss and lost. At 4:30 in the morning, at Fort Johnson, a gunner in James' mortar battery pulled the lanyard on a ten-inch mortar. He is commonly given credit for naming what became a great Midwestern state. Four reasons. That someone of McClellan's brilliance would not see Lincoln's greatness and capitalize on the fact that he must work with this president, despite what he might feel about him personally. Do you think their politics impacted the decisions they made during wartime? It is unfair to lay all the responsibility at Lincoln's door. Way to go! He seemed especially shrewd about handling people, as this episode demonstrates. While the quote is false, the spirit of it is something that Lincoln did speak to. Irvin McDowell. Transcribed and Annotated by the Lincoln Studies Center, Knox College. And it doesn't matter whether or not Mrs. Fremont might be judged by history to have been "imperious" in her meeting with Lincoln. They were pushed to the sidelines because they lost the support of the President of the United States. What union general said "war was hell"? McClellan was relieved of command in November 1862; Grant did not become general-in-chief until March 1864 (and the general had “pointed Sherman toward Atlanta” months before the summer of that year). 1. It is more important to know that we are on God's side." Brigadier General Bryan Roberts, United States Army-General Roberts took command of Fort Jackson in 2011. Cordially, john mckenna, brooklet, ga. Ronald E Franklin (author) from Mechanicsburg, PA on July 11, 2018: Fremont was certainly widely known and highly admired before the Civil War. Grant remained as General-in-Chief of the U. S. Army after the war. Abraham Lincoln - Abraham Lincoln - Reputation and character: “Now he belongs to the ages,” Stanton is supposed to have said as Lincoln took his last breath. President Lincoln had faith in Ulysses S. Grant when few people did. In May 1864 Fremont was nominated by a radical faction of the Republican Party to replace Lincoln as the party’s candidate in the presidential election to be held that November. When Presidents Fire Generals: Lincoln and McClellan Obama and McChrystal could have learned something from the men’s “failed” relationship. In the summer of 1861, two very different but equally brilliant leaders formed a partnership that journalist-turned-Civil War writer John Waugh calls a "serious failure." Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, only four days after Lee’s surrender. The more I learn about Lincoln and the Civil War the more interesting the whole story gets. Written as Abraham Lincoln approached Washington by train for his 1861 presidential inauguration, this tirade was not the rant of a fire-eating secessionist editor in Richmond or New Orleans. Pickens consulted with Beauregard, the local Confederate commander. He preferred to react to problems and to the circumstances that others had created rather than to originate policies and lay out long-range designs. They chose Captain Ezekiel Boyden, and another man whom Swett listed in a letter describing the incident as Captain McKinney (possibly Thomas J. McKenny). Lincoln’s Political Generals, by David Work University of Illinois Press, 2009. First, Lincoln knew himself early on to be a neophyte at war. I am sure most history buffs realize the war was not mainly about slavery. It's here that Fremont failed abjectly. But both failed in their missions. Lincoln’s patent was never implemented and was in fact lost for many years after a fire in the patent office. Fremont knew what was coming. Why did Lincoln fire General McClellan after the battle of Antietam? His explorations seized such a hold on the popular imagination that he became known as the “Pathfinder.”. Somehow he sensed what Fremont’s strategy would be. How many commanding generals did Lincoln go through throughout the Civil War? Dear Sir, How is it that Fremont was Fires by Lincoln for Freeing Slaves in Misorri , with out his permission, and Gen. David Hunter was made his replacement, AND THEN, Gen. Hunter went on to do the same thing as Fremont did at Ft. Pulaski, AND YET, he was not Fired from his command ? Glad I found this site. Having previously been elected governor of California in 1850, he served as territorial governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881. First, Lincoln knew himself early on to be a neophyte at war. Humiliated by his firing, McClellan sought the office of President in the 1864 election but of course, Lincoln was reelected. Call Now on 0845 519 9059 for General, First Aid and Fire Risk Assessment Services in Lincoln . Search for: HOME; ABOUT US; SERVICES; INSPECTION REPORTS; MEDIA; CONTACT US; Facebook; Google; Designed by … --President Abraham Lincoln "We trust, sir, that God is on our side. They may have a gift for it, like Dwight Eisenhower had, but by and large they tend to look on politics with some disdain. He actually did a lot for the nation. The president knew that Fremont would do everything he could, short of outright mutiny, to avoid being replaced. Lincoln did not utter the particular statement in the Facebook post. Removing the president’s account in the wake of the shockingly violent protests at the Capitol Building followed repeated warnings and a 12-hour suspension earlier this week. I think McClellan was actually right about Washington being safe when he went down to the Virginia Peninsula. What fort in south Carolina was attacked by the Massachusetts 54th Regiment? Ultimately, the president-elect said, both agreed Sanders was needed more in the Senate. But there was one slight problem. Both the leader and the general have to respect each other and know their roles. He was never offered another command. He would simply lock down security at his headquarters so tightly that no officer from Washington would be able to get through to deliver any order replacing him. Fremont’s final hurrah during the war might be seen as an attempt at revenge against Abraham Lincoln. We provide extinguisher, fire alarm, and safety supply service for many of the largest businesses and corporations in the midwest. His explanation didn’t seem to comfort the newly unemployed general. When Presidents Fire Generals: Lincoln and McClellan Obama and McChrystal could have learned something from the men’s “failed” relationship. Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on August 16, 2015: Ron, you're on fire with these HOTDs! The other hand, an order that was the case, it have! 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